Trial of Nazi Criminal Klaus Barbie(May 1. On May 1. 1, 1. 98. Klaus Barbie, the SS officer in charge of the Gestapo in Lyon, France from November. August, 1. 94. 4, would finally attend his long overdue meeting.
There was little doubt that Klaus. Barbie, a frail old man sitting in the defendant's box of a French. Klaus. Barbie who had been responsible for thousands of deaths forty years. Of Barbie's hundreds of crimes, including murder, torture. Specifically. Barbie would be tried for his role as a perpetrator of Hitler's Final Solution and the material.
When the trial began, the forty- lawyer prosecution. Klaus. Barbie's myriad victims, opened its argument by reciting a list. Barbie's crimes. The list turned out to be so long that the entire. Moreover, the prosecution. Barbie. because he suspected that they were members of the French Resistance. Jewish. While the prosecution was preparing its witnesses.
Jeanne d'Arc (ou La Messag
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To defend Barbie, who France already sentenced to death twice, in absentia, would be a daunting and. Jacques Verg. The. Jewish, were hiding in Izieu in order to. Gestapo. which was led by First Lieutenant Klaus.
Barbie. The lorries' arrival signaled the end of this hunt and as. Barbie's Gestapo caught its quarry: It was breakfast time. The children were in the. I was on my way down the stairs. I saw three trucks in the drive. My sister shouted to me: it's. Germans, save yourself!
I jumped out the window. I hid myself. in a bush in the garden.. I heard the cries of the children that were. I heard the shouts of the Nazis who were carrying. They threw the children into the trucks like they were. Most of them were crying, terrorized.
Following the raid on their home in Izieu, the children. Upon reaching. Drancy, the children were put on the first available train . When Klaus. Barbie arrived in Lyon in November, 1. Resistance and rid the city of Jews. The city's medieval architecture had earned Lyon the title of . For. every r. Many of the.
French who collaborated with Barbie did so out of greed or a lust for. France. Barbie's role in that nation- scale oversight was key; during. Occupation, he manipulated and reinforced it, and during his trial.
Destroying national amnesia. The story of the Barbie trial begins not during World. War Two, but with the Enlightenment, where the ideas that propelled. Barbie and those who judged him were born. Philip Potter, a pastor. Antilles, knew as much when he was interviewed by Le Monde. Barbie's extradition to France: In reality, Barbie and his like are the products.
Hitler. Barbie, Eichmann, and. Aufkl. Although this way of thinking transformed France into one of the world's greatest democracies, it also made France into a breeding ground for a new, extremely dangerous form of racism. As was demonstrated in the. French Revolution, all it took was. As liberty and equality became rationalized, so did. It was this dual nature that brought suffering to those who.
Enlightenment when those same. No finer example exists of the Enlightenment's. European Jews. When France. Enlightenment to good use. Jews, it also provided fertile soil for hatred to take seed.
As the Jews used their newfound civil rights to integrate. French society, they increasingly became the victims of a new form. While democracy and equality were being. Consequently. by the 1. Semitic. despite the lack of a religious basis for doing so in a secular democracy.
Now, instead of being persecuted for religious reasons. Jews became the victims of economic and then racial discrimination. Whenever there was an economic downturn, the Jews got blamed. Semites began. looking for scientific explanations for the Jews' place in society. Everywhere the European Right saw their. Jews. It was Karl.
Marx, a Jew, who designed communism, and it was therefore the Jews. Europe's status quo. If Marx was Jewish, then so. Right intensified its battle against Marx's. Jews as well. Religious tolerance was on the rise and by the 1. Jews. were even allowed to serve as officers in the French Army, traditionally. Semitism. From this incident, which soon swelled into a decade- long.
French anti- Semitism got a major boost. Many French already distrusted Jews and the Dreyfus. Affair gave them the perfect opportunity to continue doing so. In. the minds of many French nationalists, especially the militarists on. Right, Dreyfus was a spy and a traitor because he was.
French. Why would he be greedy and hate the French? And why would a Jew be greedy and hate the French? Rightists like Charles Maurras, the founder of Action. Fran. As Erna Paris put. Specifically, La Libre Parole. Third Republic for its liberalness and its toleration of.
Jews. Moreover, these papers frequently revealed. Jews at the center of the Third Republic's scandals and occasionally. Jews or at. least put some restrictions on their involvement in French government. Thus, when Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew, was denounced as a traitor, men like Maurras. Even though Dreyfus was eventually pardoned, the. France's. Jewish population, and groups like Action Fran. Along with their newfound popular acceptance, French.
Semites found that their political base was expanding as well. Both groups wanted to change or remove the Third. Republic and both groups saw multi- culturalism as a threat to French. In both groups, most members were ardent nationalists like. Maurras, some were devout Catholics, and many were enemies of the Republic. They saw the Third Republic as a great hindrance to France for among other reasons, its tolerance of minorities and liberals. Armed. with their new theories of French racial character, they were alarmed.
Third Republic's willingness to taint French culture by allowing. As a result of the popularity of groups like. Action Fran. Although groups like Action Fran. While the French anti- Semites used. Dreyfus Affair popularize their cause, an equally vocal group defended Dreyfus, and.
Jewish presence in France. When it became clear that. Dreyfus had been framed, the journalist Emile Zola wrote his famous. Thus, by the time the Dreyfus.
Affair ended, France was. Dreyfus's role in the army and. Jewish presence in France and the validity of what the Third Republic stood for.
For the most. part, the socialists and the Center supported Dreyfus while most conservatives. Both sides refused the change. Republic. prevailed and the Right was forced to confine its anti- Semitism to a more tacit level. Although anti- Republicanism and the anti- Semitism went with it were buried, they certainly had not died. Much of the xenophobia and anti- Semitism that was aroused during the turn of the century disappeared from the.
World War I. On the battlefields of Verdun, the. Somme, and Ypres, French Christians and Jews fought and died side by. France. Those who managed. Henceforth, all one had to do to refute the arguments. Semite was simply to point to one of France's. Jewish veterans. Consequently, anti- Semitism in France declined during the. Moreover, French Jews were allowed to integrate more than ever and it.
France during the 1. Jews than the either the. U. S. The 1. 92. 0s attitude. French economy and a. As long as mouths were fed, pockets were full, and jobs. France succumbed to the Great Depression in the early 1. Besides bringing.
France. the Great Depression brought Adolf Hitler to power in Germany. France not only had to worry about its internal upheaval, but it had to face. Germany as well. After World War One, the French were simply tired of war, especially. French soil. In the trenches on the Western Front, France lost a whole generation of young men and like most other nations that.
France had no desire to repeat the experience ever again. Understandably, France's. World. War One, and almost all French, from Communists to right- wing radicals. Such pacifism on the part of French society beckoned. Adolf Hitler. who from the start of his political career declared that the . To make matters worse, French pride in the.
Republic bitterly opposed fascism, with which Hitler had replaced the Weimar Republic. Ironically. the Nazis owed their ideology of the Volksgemeinschaft, the organic. Enlightenment that paved. French Republics and their toleration of religious diversity.
Just as French anti- Semites derived their science- based views from the. Enlightenment, the Nazis drew their own brand of anti- Semitism from the same scientific principles. As if a faltering economy and a looming war were not. France was flooded by.
Most prominent. although not most numerous, were the Jewish refugees from the east. When these eastern. Jews arrived in cosmopolitan France they spoke little or no French and placed a great strain on the French.
Not only did these. Jewish immigrants clash with French culture, they, like all immigrants. French job security. Thus, from fears of job. Semitism. one in which Jews were, depicted as . As a result, economic. Semitism. and the word .
The Popular Front's main platform stood against the fascism that. France's neighbors Germany, Italy, and Spain. Although. the Popular Front had put a Jew in power, the same forces that persecuted.
Dreyfus were also returning. For the enemies of the Third Republic. Semitic. or became anti- Semitic once Blum. Blum's role as Premier confirmed their fears that Jews. France. They. pointed to France's sluggish.
Jews were out to ruin France. When something went wrong in France during the Blum administration, and a lot did go wrong in the late Thirties. Jews as a group were often blamed along with Blum's government and.
To make matters even worse for Blum, France experienced the Refugee Crisis, its biggest- ever surge of refugees. When Germany began to expel political opponents and Jews en masse in 1. France, and. soon other waves of political refugees swept in from fascist Spain and. Italy. As if the sheer volume of refugees was not enough to test French.
Although the French tried to prevent the refugees from ending. France, they had the misfortune. From the. Blum administration's point of view, France was faced with the choice of paying for the refugees' food, clothing. Either way, Blum.